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In Andrewartha and Birch's (1954) usage the whole web was called the environment because no distinction was made between direct and indirect influences. Whichever usage is preferred the whole web must be taken into account in studying the animal's ecology; but Maelzer's usage seems more elegant and more useful. 1 THE IDEA THAT ENVIRONMENT IS DIVISIBLE INTO FIVE COMPONENTS To continue the metaphor of the preceding section. Each animal in the population that is being studied is imagined to be held in a web, the central strands of which, being joined directly to the animal, are defined as its environment.

Iii) The bug Nezara viridula used to be a serious pest of beans, tomatoes, and other crops in parts of South Australia until the egg-parasite Asolcus basalis was introduced and became established. The females of Asolcus rarely oviposit into an egg of Nezara that already contains an egg or larva of Asolcus. Even if they do, only one larva will survive because the other gets eaten along with the contents of the egg. This behaviour ensures that no matter how great the absolute shortage of eggs of Nezara may be, relative to the numbers of Asolcus, nevertheless none will be wasted on individuals that do not get enough food to complete their lifecycle.

E. it refers to that part of the resource that is acually used by those individuals that get enough to mature and so have a chance to contribute to the next generation. B. The supply of resource for future generations is independent of the number of animals in the present generation using the resource (a) The amount of resource used effectively by the present generation depends upon the absolute shortage that they experience. Luciiia, certain parasites, most 'detritus feeders'. (b) The amount of resource used effectively by the present generation is independent of the absolute shortage that they experience.

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A short introduction to graphical algebra by H. S Hall

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