By Esa Itkonen
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Extra info for Analogy as Structure and Process: Approaches in Linguistics, Cognitive Psychology and Philosophy of Science (Human Cognitive Processing, Volume 14)
Location’ subsumes such less abstract roles as ‘experiencer’, ‘possessor’, ‘recipient’, and ‘contact-patient’ (like in He hit the window). ‘Theme’ subsumes ‘change-of-state patient’ (like in He broke the window) as well as ‘topic-ofdiscourse’ (like the referent of the subject in The bank is next to the Post Office, where the rest of the sentence is, literally, ‘location’). Now, it might seem that a sentence with a change-of-state verb (like He broke the window) must receive a non-localist interpretation.
33 (1891-1965) Chapter 1. e. analogies). e. the discovery of a structure common to two (analogous) systems. This coincides with Types 1 and 2 of our taxonomy (cf. 10). 21, if O2 is interpreted, not as observed, but as imagined (or, perhaps, imagined to be observed). 19 represent inductive, deductive, and abductive inferences, respectively. 21 might be said to represent the abductive-analogical inference. It can be illustrated by showing, in a schematic form (cf. 22), how a prototypical grammatical rule is learned.
Heine (1997) too may be cited as a representative of ‘metaphorical grammar’. He notes (p. 31) that his “concern is exclusively with genetic motivation” of existing constructions, which means – more specifically – that he concentrates on the conceptual transfer (p. 7–8) from the earlier, and concrete, constructions to the later, and abstract, ones. Let us illustrate this position with his analysis of possessive constructions (Ch. 5). He enumerates the following ‘schemas’ that have served as real, historical starting-points for today’s possessive constructions in different languages; X and Y stand for possessor and possessum, respectively: Action Schema: X takes Y Location Schema: Y is at X Companion Schema: X is with Y Goal Schema: Y exists for/to X Topic Schema: As for X, Y exists Genitive Schema: X’s Y exists Equative Schema: Y is X’s (Y) The last two schemas presuppose an antecedent coding of the possessor – possessum relation.
Analogy as Structure and Process: Approaches in Linguistics, Cognitive Psychology and Philosophy of Science (Human Cognitive Processing, Volume 14) by Esa Itkonen