By Jan W. Gooch
`...In end, this booklet may be a truly precious resource of reference for the polymer analyst operating in academia or who has to characterise and deformulate a variety of polymer products.'
Polymer trying out, 18:231-232 (1999)
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Additional info for Analysis and Deformulation of Polymeric Materials: Paints, Plastics, Adhesives, and Inks
The two atoms connected to a central atom move toward and away from each other with deformation of the valence angle. 2. Rocking or in-plane bending. The structural unit swings back and forth in the symmetry plane of the molecule. 3. Wagging or out-of-plane bending. The structural unit swings back and forth in a plane perpendicular to the molecule’s symmetry plane. 4. Twisting. The structural unit rotates back and forth around the bond that joins it to the rest of the molecule. Splitting of bending vibrations caused by in-plane and out-of-plane vibrations is found with larger groups joined by a central atom.
The scope of this theme is too broad to permit detailed description of any kind of instrument or of the theory by which it is employed. , 1965; Amelinckx, 1964, 1970), and here I provide only a very brief description of contrast principles and specimen-preparation methods and applications where replication and sectioning techniques have been successfully employed to study surfaces, with the aim of illustrating the scope of the instrument, the resolution obtained, and the limitations of the methods.
3. , paint chip) can be examined to vividly show pigment particles and their elemental composition. The identification of the pigments can be estimated and if required, compared to other specimens. This technique is often used to match paint fragments from automobile accidents. The same technique can be applied for plastic or adhesives. In Fig. 5, a SEM micrograph of a paint specimen, note the flat appearance of the image, and the high resolution of individual particles. Inks are particularly observable with SEM and EDXRA as the solid specimens always are thin films of printed materials.
Analysis and Deformulation of Polymeric Materials: Paints, Plastics, Adhesives, and Inks by Jan W. Gooch